The STEREOTYPING Definition of “Gender Identity”

Gender Identity

The issue of Gender Identity has taken a prominent role in discussions, organizations, and activism supported by the Gay and Lesbian community. Unfortunately, it’s not always clear that we have the same thing in mind when we talk about this issue. Feminist opposition to Gender Identity has been widely misconstrued by those who don’t fully understand our concerns. This pamphlet will explain our objections and help readers engage in more productive discussions about Gender Identity that do not reinforce stereotypes or erase the legal importance of biological sex.

What Gender Identity means

GLBT Organizations have asked state and local legislatures around the country to take up the cause of discrimination against people of trans experience. To do so, GLBT Organizations have offered up “Gender Identity” to protect trans people. Though familiar to people in the center of the debate, the concept has caused a lot of confusion because it’s too broad.

Prominent GLBT organizationsincluding the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force (NGLTF) and the Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD)support a definition of Gender Identity similar to this one from Washington, DC:

“Gender identity” means a gender-related identity, appearance, expression, or behavior of an individual, regardless of the individual’s assigned sex at birth.

As of March 2012, at least fifteen American states have passed Gender Identity legislation modeled after this definition (the “Stereotyping Definition”).

Feminist objections

1. The Stereotyping Definition does not define “gender.” If one doesn’t know what a “gender identity” means, how could one know what a “gender-related identity” means?

2. The Stereotyping Definition of Gender Identity is phrased in such a way that it intentionally overrides Sex:  “regardless of the person’s assigned sex at birth.”

No other class of persons seeking protection under anti-discrimination legislation has attempted to literally disregard another protected class.

Feminists object to the Stereotyping Definition because Sex has objective physical, reproductive, and experiential consequences for the overwhelming majority of women assigned-female-at-birth. Sex exists in its own right and requires unique legal protections that Gender Identity cannot explain or represent. Gender Identity cannot replace the legal concept of sex without a significant loss of legal protections for females.

3. Understanding the Stereotyping Definition depends on understanding how traditional sex roles and stereotypes operate. Enduring sexist assumptions about women create stereotypesthat we’re softer, gentler, and more emotional than men; that we’re all inclined toward “femininity,” nurturing children, and wearing certain clothing. These stereotypes act as major stumbling blocks to women’s social equality. They especially damage women who don’t conform to them.

The Stereotyping Definition elevates gendered “appearance, expression, or behavior” over bodily reality. Framing gender identity—specifically, femininity—as that which fundamentally constitutes “woman” will not improve women’s social status. On the contrary, this definition of Gender Identity legitimizes as natural the social order created by traditional sex roles. This will ultimately make it more difficult for women to combat the Sex stereotypes that prevent our advancement in employment, education, and political office.

Narrowing the class

We propose this alternative:

“Gender identity” means a person’s identification with the sex opposite her or his physiology or assigned sex at birth, which can be shown by providing evidence including, but not limited to, medical history, care or treatment of a transsexual medical condition, or related condition, as deemed medically necessary by the American Medical Association.

This definition maintains a clear distinction between sex and gender. It also protects transsexual people from discrimination without legislatively prioritizing Gender Identity over Sex; and without falsely presuming that Gender Identity exists independently of sex roles and stereotypes.


Stereotyping is the act of making an assumption about an individual based on her membership in a specific class or group. The U.S. Supreme Court’s 1989 landmark employment decision, Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins (490 U.S. 228), held that sex stereotyping is sex discrimination:

“[i]n forbidding employers to discriminate against individuals because of their sex, Congress intended to strike at the entire spectrum of disparate treatment of men and women resulting from sex stereotypes.”

Internal citations omitted.

An employer who objects to aggressiveness in women but whose positions require this trait places women in an intolerable and impermissible Catch-22: out of a job if they behave aggressively and out of a job if they do not. Title VII lifts women out of this bind.

Feminists do not believe that women are naturally bad at math, but good at cooking and cleaning. We do not believe that women are neurologically, biologically, or genetically programmed to behave in certain “feminine” ways. To support women’s full and equal participation in society, women need strong legal prohibitions against these persistently damaging stereotypes.

Gender Identity protections must not come at the expense of Sex

Feminism supports every individual’s right to be gender non-conforming and to have legal protection from sex stereotyping discrimination in employment, housing, education, credit, and access to public accommodations. However, advocates who frame Gender Identity as more important than Sex actually reinforce stereotypes about women that feminists have fought against for decades. GLBT organizations are, in effect, undermining critical civil rights legal precedent by developing a theory of Gender Identity that values gendered “appearance, expression, or behavior” more than biological Sex.

No other class of persons seeking protection under anti-discrimination legislation has attempted to intentionally disregard another protected class— until now.

Feminists are deeply invested in maintaining hard-won protections against Sex stereotyping in the form of legally actionable Sex discrimination. Feminists seek to preserve this precedent without having the same harmful assumptions about women’s appropriate “appearance, expression, or behavior” paradoxically privileged under the guise of Gender Identity.


  1. Just to be clear, ALL people are covered by this proposal:

    1> No physical trans-ition=sex stereotyping protection on basis of sex-assigned-at-birth

    2> Physical trans-ition (post-op)=sex stereotyping protection on basis of legal sex

    3> Pre-physical trans-ition=”gender identity” anti-discrimination protection as proposed above

  2. […] THIS brochure is to be used to educate and enlighten interested parties in the issues involved with “Gender Identity” legislation and the harmful toll that such sex-based STEREOTYPING takes on females. […]

  3. I have no idea why, but that first paragraph, under that cartoon, was extremely powerful. And come to find out, extremely helpful. I’m stealing it, thanks. lol

  4. Okay I’ve spent all this time contemplating various aspects of that pamphlet and eventually decided it was PERFECT!! WOOT!! Seriously nice job and thank you very much for all the hard work you do on behalf of women.

  5. Awww, that makes me SUPER HAPPY, mAndrea! Thank you very much for the love. 🙂

  6. Just wanted to say ‘thanks’ for not turning on transsexual women (who tend to actually respect other women), despite all the transgender hate you get!! A lot of us are on your side and really sick of the TG pushiness/creepiness! So, thanks!!

  7. Hi Liz. Thank you for commenting!

    Transsexual women “tend to” understand that female bodies *exist* in their own right and cannot (should not!) be erased by the subjective concept of gender identity. THAT is the critical variable! 🙂 Bodies matter; sex matters.

  8. […] bigot, despite the fact that I supported House Bill 235 in Maryland in 2011 (even with its stereotyping definition of gender identity) and helped stage a rally to support Chrissy Polis after she was beaten at a Rosedale […]

  9. […] identity legislation. You can read about what we actually support in numerous places, including here.  Share The Love:ShareLike this:LikeBe the first to like this […]

  10. […] sex (reproductive functioning). On the basis of this “gender identity” alone– and “regardless of the person’s assigned sex at birth”– they believe that all self-appointed trans people are entitled to unconditional […]

  11. […] identity” stops. Enough is enough. Sex matters because reproduction matters. Please read this. Share this:TwitterFacebookLike this:LikeBe the first to like this post. Tags comments, gender, […]

  12. Kate LBT · ·

    The “alternative definition” proposed to the so-called “stereotyping definition” of gender identity denigrated by transmisogynists empowers the medical community, NOT transsexuals. It makes access to legal and civil equality fully dependent upon class-based access to WPATH-defined transition care, which itself is heavily biased toward white patients over women of color, abled patients over women with disabilities and middle-class and rich patients over working-class and poor. This is NOT an acceptable precondition for civil rights, and I’m profoundly disappointed in ANYONE who even thinks it is.

    There is NO other minority existing which is dependent upon class-based access to medical care for legal equality. It should be no different for trans women.

  13. Kate LBT, when gender is not a REPLACEMENT for sex, there will be no need for medical intervention. That’s the problem. SEX AND GENDER ARE DIFFERENT. If gender were merely gender; if gender non-conforming men did not call themselves “women” and demand entry to SEX-segregated spaces; then medical intervention would not be needed to “CHANGE” SEX.

  14. Awww Katie Berger Tremaine stopped by to lecture!

    Actually, Katie, people who allege discrimination based on a disability have to provide medical evidence that they are a member of the protected class.

  15. […] imprecision has resulted not only in poorly defined “gender identity” protections literally overriding another legally protected class (sex), it has also resulted in “gender identity” being inappropriately shoved into the […]

  16. […] has been enacted in many states. Many legal definitions of “gender identity” are similar to this definition used in Washington, DC: “Gender identity” means a gender-related identity, appearance, […]

  17. […] With women’s rights still in their infancy, and many structures still in place preventing women from achieving true liberation and equality, women MUST HAVE THE RIGHT to question ideologies which, when put into practice and written into laws, FURTHER ENTRENCH SEX-ROLE STEREOTYPES WHICH HARM FEMALES. […]

  18. […] I think most radical feminists object more to those who more obviously have a sexual motive for what they’re doing.  I mean that’s fine, but don’t make the rest of us play along 🙂  The decent ones we would see as it’s an instrument of social control to pigeonhole gender non-conforming women and men, and even to make Lesbian and Gay youth straight.  When homosexuality was removed from the DSM=mysteriously pretty much when gender dysphoria appeared as a diagnosis with surgery used to treat it. there is more to it theory-wise for some feminists, mainly it reinforces stereotypes and has legal consequences for women […]

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